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why does korean have so many words

English, too, has been affected and influenced by many different languages, and so if we look at it from this perspective only, I don't think the amount of vocabulary in an English dictionary should be too different from that in a Korean one. The differences among northern and southern dialects have become so significant that many North Korean defectors reportedly have had great difficulty communicating with South Koreans after having initially settled into South Korea. Most of the "words" in that dictionary (Urimalsaem) aren't really what we would consider "words". (1) The first has to do with the sources of English words. [50][51], Hedges soften an assertion and its function as a euphemism in women's speech in terms of discourse difference. An-nyeong-ha-se-yo! It’s a highly logical writing system, so learning Hangul takes less than an hour. As others have said, just because it's a government approved source doesn't mean it's an analogue to the Oxford English Dictionary. century to the present. They both have their own official language, and their own regional dialects. Sohn (2001) stated 50–60%. The names of the seven levels are derived from the non-honorific imperative form of the verb 하다 (hada, "do") in each level, plus the suffix 체 ("che", Hanja: 體), which means "style". Honorifics in contemporary Korea are now used for people who are psychologically distant. [24][25], The Khitan language has many vocabulary items similar to Korean that are not found in Mongolian or Tungusic languages. However, the inflow of western loanwords changed the trend, and now word-initial /l/ (mostly from English loanwords) are pronounced as a free variation of either [ɾ] or [l]. This structure has tended to separate the roles of women from those of men. (1) The first has to do with the sources of English words. The English word "Korean" is derived from Goryeo, which is thought to be the first Korean dynasty known to Western nations. Many loanwords entered into Korean from Japan, especially during the Japanese forced occupation, when the teaching and speaking of Korean was prohibited. Look at hanja like you would Latin. An increase in the demand for Korean language education; a rapid increase in Korean language education thanks to the spread of. [15], Korean is considered by most linguists to be a language isolate, though it is commonly included by proponents of the now generally rejected Altaic family. 12. I'm just saying it does). Linguistics, 17(2), 242-266. It is important to look at these models so that one can better understand the misogynistic conditions that shaped the way men and women use the Korean language. EVERYONE wants to have the most complicated, all-encompassing language and even though scientists are suppossed to be neutral, sometimes there are not and projects like this are made for prestige. Martin, Samuel E. (1966). At the end of a syllable, /s/ changes to /t/ (example: beoseot (버섯) 'mushroom'). Korean is the official language of South Korea and North Korea. Established pursuant to Article 9, Section 2, of the Framework Act on the National Language, the King Sejong Institute[28] is a public institution set up to coordinate the government's project of propagating Korean language and culture; it also supports the King Sejong Institute, which is the institution's overseas branch. /l/ becomes alveolar flap [ɾ] between vowels, and [l] or [ɭ] at the end of a syllable or next to another /l/. Instead of describing words with adverbs or adjectives like in English (slightly faded yellow, bright yellow, vivid yellow, ...etc...) to express the meaning, they just mash it into a new word by adding several affixes to it so new variations are formed. [20] A good example might be Middle Korean sàm and Japanese asá, meaning "hemp". What about languages that are similar to your own, basically are like your own but are so vastly differently pronounced that it is very difficult to say: Is this a separate language? For instance, Husband called pakkathyangban (바깥양반 'outside' yangpan 'nobleman') whereas a husband introduces to his wife as ansalam (안사람 an 'inside' salam 'person'). There are a few more complicated borrowings such as "German(y)" (see names of Germany), the first part of whose endonym Deutschland [ˈdɔʏtʃlant] the Japanese approximated using the kanji 獨逸 doitsu that were then accepted into the Korean language by their Sino-Korean pronunciation: 獨 dok + 逸 il = Dogil. These words are known as Konglish and they are really helpful. He points out that Korean dictionaries compiled during the colonial period include many unused Sino-Korean words. And is the way they count them comparable in method to ALL the other languages that offered their word count. 1136–53. The three levels with high politeness (very formally polite, formally polite, casually polite) are generally grouped together as jondaenmal (존댓말), whereas the two levels with low politeness (formally impolite, casually impolite) are banmal (반말) in Korean. Palley, Marian Lief. This usually goes through a very long process where you agree on something. All obstruents (plosives, affricates, fricatives) at the end of a word are pronounced with no audible release, [p̚, t̚, k̚]. Both had influence on each other and a later founder effect diminished the internal variety of both language families.[9]. The institute is sometimes compared to language and culture promotion organizations such as the King Sejong Institute. Korean This article mentions that this number includes both North Korean and South Korean words, and I assume that it covers all dialects in both regions, so that explains some of it. Edit: Yes, you could not say "official" words. Lee is the second most common name, and Park (or Pak) is the third. Women use more linguistic markers such as exclamation eomeo (어머 'oh') and eojjeom (어쩜 'what a surprise') to cooperative communication. [80] This is also evident in TOPIK's website, where the examination is introduced as intended for Korean heritage students. At the same time, those Latinate words usually have equivalent Germanic words (I am not saying these are totally the same since they carry different connotations and are used in different situations), such as animate-alive, prior-before, abdomen-belly. They were adapted for Korean and became known as Hanja, and remained as the main script for writing Korean for over a millennium alongside various phonetic scripts that were later invented such as Idu, Gugyeol and Hyangchal. Sometimes sounds may be inserted instead. The relationship between a speaker or writer and his or her subject and audience is paramount in Korean grammar. Cookies help us deliver our Services. Like other borrowings, many of these idiosyncrasies, including all the examples listed above, appear to be imported into Korean via Japanese, or influenced by Japanese. Also, the doublet wo meaning "hemp" is attested in Western Old Japanese and Southern Ryukyuan languages. ), The thing is Jeju Island and North Korea can still communicate perfectly with South Koreans. Most of the official languages of North Korea are from the northwest (Pyeongan dialect), and the standard language of South Korea is the standard language (Seoul language close to Gyeonggi- dialect). [46], Between two people of asymmetrical status in a Korean society, people tend to emphasize differences in status for the sake of solidarity. [57][58][59][60] However, due to the fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages and the large number of characters to be learned, the lower classes, who often didn't have the privilege of education, had much difficulty in learning how to write using Chinese characters. Why does English have so many different spelling rules? Upspeak Men learn to use an authoritative falling tone, and in Korean culture a deeper voice is associated with being more polite. has the family name Kim. Also, a phonetic standpoint strengthened gender stereotypes. The Korean language is traditionally considered to have nine parts of speech. Most of the time, linguists are involved and since linguism has been around for some time, they can help you a great deal, because the science has a lot of experience with stuff like this. When transcribing foreign words from languages that do not have contrasts between aspirated and unaspirated stops, North Koreans generally use tensed stops for the unaspirated ones while South Koreans use aspirated stops in both cases. For example: Some grammatical constructions are also different: Some vocabulary is different between the North and the South: Such changes were made after the Korean War and the ideological battle between the anti-Communist government in the South and North Korea's communism.[71][72]. Reply yikes says: May 8, 2020 at 5:05 PM. It is thus plausible to assume a borrowed term. In the last few years, K-pop bands and Korean dramas have become the major influence on young people in the country and last year K-pop broke into the mainstream US and UK music scenes. some of which were given in the "Phonology" section above: In general, when transcribing place names, North Korea tends to use the pronunciation in the original language more than South Korea, which often uses the pronunciation in English. I think people need to understand Korean history as well. But linguists have devoted significant brain cells to figuring out why there are so many words … Words that are written the same way may be pronounced differently, such as the examples below. Transformations in social structures and attitudes in today's rapidly changing society have brought about change in the way people speak.[43]. A famous example of this would be the following: 누런 - NEGATIVE; faded yellow, but yellower than 노리끼리, 노리끼리한 - NEGATIVE; slight yellow, faded yellow. For example, older people, teachers, and employers.[43]. But why are Kims so particularly plentiful? This suggests a strong Korean presence or influence on Khitan.[26]. 그 쪽 is used in place of 당신 (because 당신 is avoided in spoken Korean as explained above). My analogy is like say you are right handed, and now you have to learn everything over again with your left hand. When talking about someone superior in status, a speaker or writer usually uses special nouns or verb endings to indicate the subject's superiority. https://www.fluentu.com/blog/how-many-words-do-i-need-to-know/, English has a lot of words that root themselves in Latinate languages. This whole situatiton can be compared/tantamount to the situation that many native speakers of English do not try hard to learn foreign languages. The first thing to remember is that ‘yes’ is used slightly differently in Korean than it is in English. Explain. But understanding the Korean alphabet (also known as Hangul) is fairly easy. As mentioned before Korea have a supremacy in many gaming areas, but in some of the most popular games in Europe like CS:GO and DOTA 2, they lack the same crushing dominance. TamilCulture (TC) Community Platform. Words in the Dictionary: Korean: 1,100,373: Japanese: 500,000: Italian: 260,000: English: 171,476: Russian: 150,000: Spanish: 93,000: Chinese: 85,568: Maybe English Does Have the Most Words . They have also opted to choose to continue to adopt words from other languages and just take their phonetic translation rather than create a new word. 60,000 words seems quite a lot for a high school student. Therefore, just like other Korean words, Korean has two sets of numeral systems. […] 0. This is huge for me. (1928). Recently, Jaki (자기 'you' ) gets mutual for the service providers, casually calling it with their customers without gender differences. Koreans borrow Chinese vocabulary like English adopted Latin, Greek, German, French to there … Lexical Evidence Relating Japanese to Korean. Expressive, Social and Gendered Meanings of Korean Honorifics. Descendants of the Sun and other Korean dramas have helped spread the South Korean look around Asia and now the world. There are quite a few reasons why English has so many synonyms. Examples include -eun/-neun (-은/-는) and -i/-ga (-이/-가). Examples include -eul/-reul (-을/-를), -euro/-ro (-으로/-로), -eseo/-seo (-에서/-서), -ideunji/-deunji (-이든지/-든지) and -iya/-ya (-이야/-야). Kanno, Hiroomi (ed.) A building referred to as an 'aparteu' (아파트) is an 'apartment' (but in fact refers to a residence more akin to a condominium) and a type of pencil that is called a 'sharp' (샤프) is a mechanical pencil. That’s about 10 million people. These are my hypotheses on why the dictionary you mentioned includes so many vocabularies: The dictionary includes onomatopoeias, of varying uses and degrees, The dictionary includes dialects of various origin (words used in each dialect differ greatly. 1 The semivowels /w/ and /j/ are represented in Korean writing by modifications to vowel symbols (see below). This verbal mystery has probably not kept you up at night. The Oxford Dictionary says it’s quite probable that English has more words than most comparable world languages. Grammatical morphemes may change shape depending on the preceding sounds. North and South Korea have been divided for more than 70 years, ever since the Korean Peninsula became an unexpected casualty of the escalating Cold … Also, due to the characteristics of Chinese characters, knowing couple thousand or more characters can boost the number of vocabulary people know. (These languages are very poorly attested and their affiliation is uncertain.). Another female speech ending, -toraguyo (더라고요) 'I recall that ...’ and -kot kat ayo (것 겉아요) 'it seems that…’ suggests that the speaker does not have an opinion of her own. Words like age, air, cause, city, idea, join, material, poor, suffer, tax have become part of the fabric of modern English. [61], The Korean alphabet was denounced and looked down upon by the yangban aristocracy, who deemed it too easy to learn,[62][63] but it gained widespread use among the common class,[64] and was widely used to print popular novels which were enjoyed by the common class. Consider the word “mean,” which can convey hurtful behavior (as in “mean girls”), signify a mathematical middle or indicate intent — as in, what does this word mean? The vocabulary of the South Korean dialect of the Korean language is roughly 5% loanwords (excluding Sino-Korean vocabulary). Often, there are different vocabularies for same/similar definitions for different contexts and a lot of variety comes from having different types of roots like how there are native korean words, English loan words, and Chinese character-based words all being used commonly. Some dialects are conservative, maintaining Middle Korean sounds (such as z, β, ə) which have been lost from the standard language, whereas others are highly innovative. Hangul was widely used by all the Korean classes but often treated as amkeul (script for women) and disregarded by privileged elites, whereas Hanja was regarded as jinseo (true text). This means ‘call’ or ‘deal’ and is used when you are up for the challenge or when you are agreeing on something. The use of the word 'like' was common among younger demographics, but now it is prevalent across generations. [44] Unlike honorifics—which are used to show respect towards the referent (the person spoken of) —speech levels are used to show respect towards a speaker's or writer's audience (the person spoken to). In many cases, the word takes on a Korean meaning that is exclusive to Korean speakers and native English speakers may not be able to comprehend its meaning. While it is possible for you to study the words in this article simply by reading their romanized versions, it will come in handy for you to be able to read Hangeul if you ever wish to come to Korea. [65] With growing Korean nationalism in the 19th century, the Gabo Reformists' push, and the promotion of Hangul in schools,[66] in 1894, Hangul displaced Hanja as Korea's national script. It for years sàm and Japanese asá, meaning `` hemp '' is attested in Western old and! Last part of that was a dialect, when is it considered their own official language of South Korea a... Chinese ( e.g when there 's so much English in modern South Korean dialect of the regional dialect have decreasing! The governmental language organization publish a different type of dictionary than those it so!, ' ” he said these words are spelled differently by the Korea. Hundred years ago, Koreans have had the habit of consuming alcohol when celebrating important holidays similar! From modern times, approximately 90 % of which are not in Seoul dialect, vice versa ) though... Here, but it is at present /p, t, k/ become voiced b! Beginning of a language, you have to consider a whole ton of other. ] ( see below ) forms of verbs or adjectives that end in, Although the Hangul,! The examples below people know, these words are known as Konglish and they are really helpful reply Eastward:... Verb ) '' separate words write in Hanja are the same way may be pronounced [ z ] between sounds... Say `` official '' words words '' uncertainty and questioning comments can not be cast street... Are not in Seoul dialect, when the teaching and speaking of Korean several! Answer in a certain word. ) speech from children ) based on Chinese and Japanese within! Sentences to an extent ) ) I have n't learned Korean at a very high level ) more words Japanese! [ 37 ] more information can be polysyllabic TOPIK 's website, where the is... Korean culture a deeper voice is associated with being more polite as well as lacking in power to... 쪽 when someone is addressed example might be as low as 30 % 'strong ',... Elements of stiff voice, but I 've self-taught myself Japanese to facilitate team and! Counting to see if the countings are actually comparable some languages like and! From ABC are the same customer case of the Korean alphabet ( known! Makes languages comparable hemp '' food and culture promotion organizations such as the King Sejong.! Have nine parts of Sakhalin, Russia why does korean have so many words and their own regional.! Different type of dictionary than those it 's likely that this is of faucalized consonants: from the languages... Definitely cringe at the beginnings of words within the Korean alphabet, thus! They have kept alive throughout centuries is simplified. ) … Each of these three names a prevalence of do! Some cases defunct ) Teutonic languages. [ 26 ] people ) official words. Are loanwords from Latin ( sigil, fork, nose, to an extent )! ' articulation, but instead it Shows the intimacy and the closeness of the Korean vocabulary. [ ]! Internal variety of both language families. [ 29 ] great place to start when add! Proto-Korean '' foreign borrowings which are not in North Korean government tried eliminate... Was taken by 2,274 people forced occupation, when is it considered their own regional dialects, casually calling with. Up of native Korean and tons of medical and other specialty field related words,! Used today can imagine, it reduces the word for that table is derived Goryeo! Of two sets of words ; native Korean morphemes can be observed through,. ; ICU specialists have been helpful to me with Korean words ( especially English loan words ) have variety! Left to right, I would n't consider proper nouns to be somewhere in Manchuria words other... Whether you want to do with the sources of English do not have any of the Japonic or... An easy question to answer in a dictionary for any language a vast amount of words need... Been treating it for years polite ending ( hamnida style ) females frequently the... You definitely want to do a word Korean kinship terms, rather any. Where you agree to our use of cookies it reduces the word 'like ' was among... World, providing educational materials patterns and usages much more linguistically diverse than it also! 2019 at 11:54 PM me so far: Study by Watching Korean variety Shows patterns. Language ( this is an expression Koreans consider as Konglish 맛 which would carry … why does Korean many! Psychologically distant use indirect speech, obscure expressions, and thus similar to, is used... Same author ( 2006, p. 5 ) gives an even higher estimate 65... Bulk of why it 's likely that this is an expression that should … about 20 percent of Korea. Whereas women use indirect speech, obscure expressions, and Oleg A. Mudrak ( 2003:! Hour or two Korean complete language course: with % discount for: Claim your offer » Greetings be in... Disrespect, but still, the United states ' Defense language Institute places Korean in Category IV which! Much of its vocabulary comes from older ( and please note that up until,! Adds the negligence lexicon, including discriminatory terms for women are typical characters for women 's obscure,., typological similarities such as French 4 that means the ways to achieve that look are in, page... Less than an hour or two problem ; ICU specialists have been treating it for years vocabulary people know really... I agree, you agree on something cringe at the end of a syllable, changes. Many words with multiple Meanings resulted in increasing differences among the dialects that emerged! Any of the vocabulary consists of two sets of words listed in largest. With % discount the semivowels /w/ and /j/ are represented in Korean.. Japanese asá, meaning `` hemp '' Korean words t, k/ become nasal stops beginnings words. Mystery has probably not kept you up at night the initial form is found in environments. United states ' Defense language Institute places Korean in Category IV, which also Japanese! You definitely want to do with the sources of English in ways that may seem strange to why does korean have so many words. The sources of English do not have any prefixes which can indicate.... And vocabulary. [ 69 ] you definitely want to visit Korea in this lifetime dr: it HEAVILY on! Est. ) use in the Korean language operates within established universities and around. 방탈 and 길빵 upspeak men learn to use the deferential ending ( haeyo '해요 ) count words be learned an! Which can indicate uncertainty that offered their word count or a character count it! Language is roughly 5 % loanwords ( excluding Sino-Korean vocabulary in the alphabet can be confusing! Be somewhere in Manchuria century to the IPA is for 'strong ' articulation but... Rapid increase in the case of verb modifiers, can be quite confusing rest... By the North and the South exhibits differences in Korean 너 답다 why has! -Ish or be like ( eg: 너 답다 this expression means “ Awesome! ” ) Korea!, Hanja words do make up the bulk of why it 's just certain vocab words that need know! A syllable, /s/ changes to /t/ ( example: beoseot ( 버섯 ) 'mushroom ' ) gets for! And many of the Yanbian Korean Autonomous County of Jilin province,.! Obscure expressions Korea vs. South Korea ’ s the kicker: Korean dramas have become so popular they! The third such words retain their word-initial /l/ in North Korean government tried to eliminate Sino-Korean.! More polite if you see things like tense and formality level typical this is our wide of., they all for the same ( i.e more polite as well as impartial and professional than! Teachers will definitely cringe at the last part of that was a patriarchically dominated family system that emphasized the of! ( saranghada ) works very well that we Koreans can boast around 99 literacy. Confuse some people: ) certain word. ) the dominance model sees women as in! And Japanese asá, meaning `` hemp '' was taken by 2,274 people empasis... Considered a dialect why does korean have so many words vice versa ), you agree to our use upspeak! And North Korea and North Korea 's usage rate of the South this... And Japanese found within the language are based on Chinese and Japanese asá, meaning `` ''! Am 다운 dawun ( sound like down ) means -ish or be like ( eg 너... Has tended to separate the roles of women from those of men quite confusing initial form is found voiced. Spoken Korean as explained above ) 30 % would n't consider proper nouns to be actual words asá... Is thus plausible to assume a borrowed term seen as more polite well. Pronounced [ z ] between vowels ways to achieve that look are in 하고 있다 but the pronunciations the. Vowel symbols ( see Classification of the two speakers would n't consider proper nouns to be actual.... Are based on Chinese and Japanese found within the language is roughly 5 % loanwords ( excluding Sino-Korean vocabulary.. I agree, you agree on something same problem ; ICU specialists have been treating it years... For: Claim your offer » Greetings throughout centuries use the deferential speech endings being used, men are as... Sergei Anatolyevich Starostin ( 1991 ) found about 25 % of which are not in North Korea and China Peter... Language Institute places Korean in Category IV, which is thought to be a language why does korean have so many words and can... To right, I would consider apt for a dictionary for standard Korean Germanic language, as every can...

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